The PREVENT Dementia Programme has a number of publications which have been published across a range of peer reviewed journals and can be accessed through the links in the categories below.
Elijah Mak, Maria-Eleni Dounavi, Audrey Low, Stephen F Carter, Elizabeth McKiernan, Guy B Williams, Simon Jones, Isabelle Carriere, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Karen Ritchie, Craig Ritchie, Li Su, John T O’Brien.
First-degree relatives of people with dementia (FH+) are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we investigate “estimated years to onset of dementia” (EYO) as a surrogate marker of preclinical disease progression and assess its associations with multi-modal neuroimaging biomarkers. 89 FH+ participants in the PREVENT-Dementia study underwent longitudinal MR imaging over 2 years. EYO was calculated as the difference between the parental age of dementia diagnosis and the current age of the participant (mean EYO = 23.9 years). There were no significant effects of EYO on regional grey matter atrophy or white matter hyperintensities. However, a shorter EYO was associated with lower white matter Fractional Anisotropy and elevated Mean/Radial Diffusivity, particularly in the corpus callosum. The influence of EYO on white matter deficits were significantly stronger compared to that of normal ageing. APOE-ε4 carriers exhibited hyperperfusion with nearer proximity to estimated onset in temporo-parietal regions. There were no interactions between EYO and time, suggesting that EYO was not associated with accelerated imaging changes in this sample. Amongst cognitively normal midlife adults with a family history of dementia, a shorter hypothetical proximity to dementia onset may be associated with brain abnormalities, particularly amongst APOE-ε4 carriers. Our findings also confer biological validity to the construct of EYO as a potential stage marker of preclinical progression in the context of sporadic dementia.
Xulin Liu, Maria-Eleni Dounavi, Karen Ritchie, Katie Wells, Craig W. Ritchie, Li Su, Graciela Muniz-Terrera & John T. O’Brien
Journal of Neurology. 2021
Cardiovascular factors have a strong association with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and brain atrophy. However, until recently, there has been limited longitudinal research in cognitive healthy middle-aged adults investigating these links. A recent PREVENT Dementia study used data from 167 participants in the PREVENT London cohort, to investigate associations between the CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia) score and structural MRI scans at both baseline and 2-year follow up. Participants in the high-risk group (i.e., those with a CAIDE score above 6) were on average, found to have a greater rate of brain atrophy. However, to identify the specific regions and structures driving this atrophy pattern, additional analysis was conducted using voxel based morphometry (VBM).
Key terms and abbreviations:
Trauma and depressive symptomatology in middle-aged persons at high risk of dementia: the PREVENT Dementia Study
Karen Ritchie, Isabelle Carrière, Sarah Gregory, Tam Watermeyer, Samuel Danso, Li Su, Craig W Ritchie, John T O’Brien
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 2020
This study explored the links between childhood trauma, depression, adult cognitive functioning and risk of dementia.Read More
The current study used data from 378 PREVENT participants, from West London, Oxford and Cambridge, to investigate whether midlife adults with a history of childhood trauma had greater risk of both depression, loss of hippocampal volume at midlife and in turn, cognitive performance, and risk of dementia.
It was hypothesised that childhood trauma would be associated with greater clinical depression, lower hippocampal volume and poorer cognitive performance and dementia risk at mid-life. However, while childhood trauma was associated with depression and reduced hippocampal volume, it was not related to current cognitive function or dementia risk.
The findings suggest that the aetiology of depression is different to that of dementia, and the relationship of depression to dementia risk in persons experiencing childhood trauma appears to be neither a risk factor nor a prodromal feature of the disease but that of a comorbidity which may add to brain burden. This study demonstrates that theremay be multiple routes to which depression may appear in individuals with high risk of dementia, and future research in this area should take into account the origins of variety of depression symptomatology.
Key terms and abbreviations:
Aetiology = The cause of a disease
AD = Alzheimer’s disease
Comorbidity = The simultaneous presence of two or more diseases or conditions in one individual.